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What is Computer Networking?

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what is computer networking

What is Computer Networking?


Today’s world is the world of Information and Technology. In today’s fast changing world, data needs to be transferred efficiently, frequently and speedily. To move data at a fast speed and that too with minimum data loss, networking plays an important role. Computer Networks have made a major impact on the society as a whole.

Computer Networking refers to interconnected computing devices that can exchange data and share resources with each other. These networked devices use a system of rules, called communications protocols, to transmit information over physical or wireless technologies.

Need of Computer Networking


In today’s world computer has become an integral part of the business sector for professional activities as well as for personal activities also. As technologies have evolved networking came into the picture and slowly from initial wired network technology we moved to this wireless network technology.

Access to Remote Database:
It has become easy for an average person to access any remote database, e.g. airline reservations and thereby book tickets. Likewise databases of trains, online universities, hotels etc can be accessed as per the requirement. Remote-control/access programs can be used to troubleshoot problems or show new users how to perform a task.

Sharing of files and softwares:
A network enables users to share data files with each other. Latest data can be made available at all times to all users. Files and folders can be backed up to local or remote shares. Software can be installed centrally rather than on each machine which proves to be much cheaper than buying licenses for every machine.

Sharing Peripherals:
Laser printers and large storage media are quite expensive. Networks enable us to share such resources and hence reduce the operational cost of any organization. A company with about fifty computers can share resources such as printers, scanners, hard disks etc, thereby reducing the cost considerably. Even fax systems can be integrated within a network. Audio and video content can also be streamed to multiple devices.

Sharing storage:
On a network, one can access data from any machine. Hence storage can be distributed and thus database load can be shared on the network. This even proves to be cost effective. A file can even have copies on two or three machines.

Improving communication:
A computer network can provide a powerful, fast and reliable communication medium among the users of various computers on the network. Using a network, it is easy for two or more people to prepare a presentation together in spite of being located in different cities. In fact the best example in this context can be of the use of internet. We can communicate efficiently and easily via email, instant messaging, chat rooms, telephone, video telephone calls, and video conferencing.

Network Requirements


Every network includes:

  • At least two computers – Server or Client workstation.
  • Network Interface Cards (NIC).
  • A connection medium, usually a wire or cable, although wireless communication between networked computers and peripherals is also possible.
  • Network Operating system software, such as Microsoft Windows NT or 2000, Novell NetWare, Unixand Linux.

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